How to Start a Stock Brokerage Firm
Stock brokerage firms are a bridge between retail investors and public companies and allow smooth, fast trading of securities. They help create and maintain the secondary market and liquidity for investors and companies. Finally, they hold investments inside of retirement plans for individuals and companies.
Learn how to start your own Stock Brokerage Firm and whether it is the right fit for you.
Ready to form your LLC? Check out the Top LLC Formation Services.
Start a stock brokerage firm by following these 10 steps:
- Plan your Stock Brokerage Firm
- Form your Stock Brokerage Firm into a Legal Entity
- Register your Stock Brokerage Firm for Taxes
- Open a Business Bank Account & Credit Card
- Set up Accounting for your Stock Brokerage Firm
- Get the Necessary Permits & Licenses for your Stock Brokerage Firm
- Get Stock Brokerage Firm Insurance
- Define your Stock Brokerage Firm Brand
- Create your Stock Brokerage Firm Website
- Set up your Business Phone System
We have put together this simple guide to starting your stock brokerage firm. These steps will ensure that your new business is well planned out, registered properly and legally compliant.
Exploring your options? Check out other small business ideas.
STEP 1: Plan your business
A clear plan is essential for success as an entrepreneur. It will help you map out the specifics of your business and discover some unknowns. A few important topics to consider are:
- What will you name your business?
- What are the startup and ongoing costs?
- Who is your target market?
- How much can you charge customers?
Luckily we have done a lot of this research for you.
What will you name your business?
Choosing the right name is important and challenging. If you don’t already have a name in mind, visit our How to Name a Business guide or get help brainstorming a name with our Stock Brokerage Firm Name Generator
If you operate a sole proprietorship, you might want to operate under a business name other than your own name. Visit our DBA guide to learn more.
When registering a business name, we recommend researching your business name by checking:
- Your state's business records
- Federal and state trademark records
- Social media platforms
- Web domain availability.
It's very important to secure your domain name before someone else does.
What are the costs involved in opening a stock brokerage firm?
Startup expenses vary, but FINRA will require at least $100,000, but may require up to $150,000 in capital reserves for your firm. Add to this the cost for state registration, consultants, salaries for your employees, and deposits for clearing firms, and you may find starting your own brokerage firm in your state can cost between $200,000 and $300,000 or more.
What are the ongoing expenses for a stock brokerage firm?
Ongoing expenses are mostly regulatory, including licensing and compliance training and testing (continuing education). However, there are also the normal office expenses, including utilities, paper and office supplies, and labor costs. In total, these costs can range from $2,000 to $5,000 per year for a very small firm, and typically cost up to 35% of total revenue for mid to large firms .
Who is the target market?
Preferred clients are high net worth or ultra high net worth clients. Minimum assets of $500,000 to $1 million are preferred. Poor clients are those with few or no assets to manage.
How does a stock brokerage firm make money?
This business makes money primarily by gathering assets under management (AUM). Brokerage firms typically charge a fee as a percentage of these assets. In addition to the fee, some brokerage firms also charge a flat fee per account.
How much can you charge customers?
A brokerage firm typically charges a fee against assets under management. For example, a broker-dealer may charge 2% of assets under management. On a client portfolio worth $100,000, this would amount to an annual fee of $2,000. Brokerages may also charge a flat fee for financial planning services. For example, a comprehensive financial plan can cost clients between $2,000 and $10,000. Modular financial plans can cost between $500, and $1,500.
Finally, a brokerage can charge clients a per-hour fee for consultations that fall outside of the normal scope of financial planning work. College planning would be an example of services that fall outside of conventional financial planning. While financial planning does recognize the role of planning for a child's education, usually this area is treated as supplemental to the core planning services, which include retirement planning.
In-depth college planning may involve researching schools, financial aid programs, helping parents set up 529 plans and alternative funding for college, researching grants and loans for parents and preparing a customized solution for their child.
How much profit can a stock brokerage firm make?
Average profit margins in the financial services industry hover around 14%, with some firms making as little as 5% and others, 40% or more. Ensemble firms average 20% profit margins.
How can you make your business more profitable?
Specialization can make a huge difference in income potential. Advisors and brokerage firms that cater to specific types of clients can charge more money. Another way brokerages can earn more is by specializing in specific types of investments and then charging more money for advice about those investments.
For example, an investment firm that specializes in precious metals and mining companies can gain a competitive advantage over others who only deal with more mainstream investments. Investors looking for these types of alternative investments are also usually more willing to pay more for specialized advice on these investments.
STEP 2: Form a legal entity
The most common business structure types are the sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company (LLC), and corporation.
Establishing a legal business entity such as an LLC or corporation protects you from being held personally liable if your stock brokerage firm is sued.
Form Your LLC
Read our Guide to Form Your Own LLC
You can form an LLC yourself and pay only the minimal state LLC costs or hire one of the Best LLC Services for a small, additional fee.
Recommended: You will need to elect a registered agent for your LLC. LLC formation packages usually include a free year of registered agent services. You can choose to hire a registered agent or act as your own.
STEP 3: Register for taxes
You will need to register for a variety of state and federal taxes before you can open for business.
In order to register for taxes you will need to apply for an EIN. It's really easy and free!
You can acquire your EIN through the IRS website. If you would like to learn more about EINs, read our article, What is an EIN?
There are specific state taxes that might apply to your business. Learn more about state sales tax and franchise taxes in our state sales tax guides.
STEP 4: Open a business bank account & credit card
Using dedicated business banking and credit accounts is essential for personal asset protection.
When your personal and business accounts are mixed, your personal assets (your home, car, and other valuables) are at risk in the event your business is sued. In business law, this is referred to as piercing your corporate veil.
Open a business bank account
Besides being a requirement when applying for business loans, opening a business bank account:
- Separates your personal assets from your company's assets, which is necessary for personal asset protection.
- Makes accounting and tax filing easier.
Recommended: Read our Best Banks for Small Business review to find the best national bank or credit union.
Get a business credit card
Getting a business credit card helps you:
- Separate personal and business expenses by putting your business' expenses all in one place.
- Build your company's credit history, which can be useful to raise money later on.
Recommended: Apply for an easy approval business credit card from Divvy and build your business credit quickly.
STEP 5: Set up business accounting
Recording your various expenses and sources of income is critical to understanding the financial performance of your business. Keeping accurate and detailed accounts also greatly simplifies your annual tax filing.
Make LLC accounting easy with our LLC Expenses Cheat Sheet.
STEP 6: Obtain necessary permits and licenses
Failure to acquire necessary permits and licenses can result in hefty fines, or even cause your business to be shut down.
Federal Business Licensing Requirements
Guide to Broker-Dealer Registration
State & Local Business Licensing Requirements
Certain state permits and licenses may be needed to operate a stock brokerage firm. Learn more about licensing requirements in your state by visiting SBA’s reference to state licenses and permits.
Most businesses are required to collect sales tax on the goods or services they provide. To learn more about how sales tax will affect your business, read our article, Sales Tax for Small Businesses.
Certificate of Occupancy
A stock brokerage firm can be run out of a storefront. Businesses operating out of a physical location typically require a Certificate of Occupancy (CO). A CO confirms that all building codes, zoning laws and government regulations have been met.
- If you plan to lease office space:
- It is generally the landlord’s responsibility to obtain a CO.
- Before leasing, confirm that your landlord has or can obtain a valid CO that is applicable to a stock brokerage firm.
- After a major renovation, a new CO often needs to be issued. If your place of business will be renovated before opening, it is recommended to include language in your lease agreement stating that lease payments will not commence until a valid CO is issued.
- If you plan to purchase or build office space:
- You will be responsible for obtaining a valid CO from a local government authority.
- Review all building codes and zoning requirements for you business’ location to ensure your stock brokerage firm will be in compliance and able to obtain a CO.
STEP 7: Get business insurance
Just as with licenses and permits, your business needs insurance in order to operate safely and lawfully. Business Insurance protects your company’s financial wellbeing in the event of a covered loss.
There are several types of insurance policies created for different types of businesses with different risks. If you’re unsure of the types of risks that your business may face, begin with General Liability Insurance. This is the most common coverage that small businesses need, so it’s a great place to start for your business.
Another notable insurance policy that many businesses need is Workers’ Compensation Insurance. If your business will have employees, it’s a good chance that your state will require you to carry Workers' Compensation Coverage.
FInd out what types of insurance your Stock Brokerage Firm needs and how much it will cost you by reading our guide Business Insurance for Stock Brokerage Firm.
STEP 8: Define your brand
Your brand is what your company stands for, as well as how your business is perceived by the public. A strong brand will help your business stand out from competitors.
If you aren't feeling confident about designing your small business logo, then check out our Design Guides for Beginners, we'll give you helpful tips and advice for creating the best unique logo for your business.
Recommended: Get a logo using Truic's free logo Generator no email or sign up required, or use a Premium Logo Maker.
If you already have a logo, you can also add it to a QR code with our Free QR Code Generator. Choose from 13 QR code types to create a code for your business cards and publications, or to help spread awareness for your new website.
How to promote & market a stock brokerage firm
Marketing your business is usually done in stages. Since it’s almost impossible to start your own brokerage firm without having previously worked for another broker-dealer, most principals already come to their own business with a book of business. Marketing usually involves reaching out to existing clientele for referrals. However, compliance-approved marketing materials may also allow you to do targeted direct mail, online advertising, and email marketing.
How to keep customers coming back
Charge less in fees or offer more services than other firms. Since broker-dealers are prohibited from making explicit service or investment return claims, you must get creative in how you differentiate yourself. For example, you could offer potential customers free supplemental services that you used to charge money for. You could also give clients the option of a free concierge service, where they have greater access to you during off-hours.
STEP 9: Create your business website
After defining your brand and creating your logo the next step is to create a website for your business.
While creating a website is an essential step, some may fear that it’s out of their reach because they don’t have any website-building experience. While this may have been a reasonable fear back in 2015, web technology has seen huge advancements in the past few years that makes the lives of small business owners much simpler.
Here are the main reasons why you shouldn’t delay building your website:
- All legitimate businesses have websites - full stop. The size or industry of your business does not matter when it comes to getting your business online.
- Social media accounts like Facebook pages or LinkedIn business profiles are not a replacement for a business website that you own.
- Website builder tools like the GoDaddy Website Builder have made creating a basic website extremely simple. You don’t need to hire a web developer or designer to create a website that you can be proud of.
Recommended: Get started today using our recommended website builder or check out our review of the Best Website Builders.
Other popular website builders are: WordPress, WIX, Weebly, Squarespace, and Shopify.
STEP 10: Set up your business phone system
Getting a phone set up for your business is one of the best ways to help keep your personal life and business life separate and private. That’s not the only benefit; it also helps you make your business more automated, gives your business legitimacy, and makes it easier for potential customers to find and contact you.
There are many services available to entrepreneurs who want to set up a business phone system. We’ve reviewed the top companies and rated them based on price, features, and ease of use. Check out our review of the Best Business Phone Systems 2023 to find the best phone service for your small business.
Recommended Business Phone Service: Phone.com
Phone.com is our top choice for small business phone numbers because of all the features it offers for small businesses and it's fair pricing.
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Is this Business Right For You?
This business is ideal for individuals who are good with math and finance, have a passion for helping others meet financial goals, and are good with money. This business may require long hours, especially in the early years of the business. And, while weekend and holidays are typically “non trading days,” many brokerage firm owners do work weekends completing paperwork or meeting with clients.
Want to know if you are cut out to be an entrepreneur?
Take our Entrepreneurship Quiz to find out!
What happens during a typical day at a stock brokerage firm?
Day-to-day activities of a brokerage firm owner include contacting clients, overseeing employees, possibly managing special high net worth client funds, preparing financial plans for his book of business, meeting with compliance officers, approving marketing campaigns, meeting with internal and external wholesalers, and running financial analyses.
What are some skills and experiences that will help you build a successful stock brokerage firm?
You must be a Registered Investment Advisor before you can make any investment recommendations to clients. You also need to become a fiduciary for all investment accounts you manage. State exams may be part of this process, but most investment advisors are regulated at the federal level, directly under the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Knowledge of financial modeling, risk management, and investing is essential, as is portfolio management. Managerial experience is required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). If you do not have an experienced Principal on your management team, it’s unlikely your application for your own broker-dealer will be approved.
What is the growth potential for a stock brokerage firm?
Growth potential for a brokerage firm depends entirely on assets under management. Large firms, like Merrill Lynch hold trillions of dollars in assets. However, small firms may only hold several million. Brokerages are typically run by a manager with several brokers or investment advisors working for the firm.
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Take the Next Step
Find a business mentor
One of the greatest resources an entrepreneur can have is quality mentorship. As you start planning your business, connect with a free business resource near you to get the help you need.
Having a support network in place to turn to during tough times is a major factor of success for new business owners.
Learn from other business owners
Want to learn more about starting a business from entrepreneurs themselves? Visit Startup Savant’s startup founder series to gain entrepreneurial insights, lessons, and advice from founders themselves.
Resources to Help Women in Business
There are many resources out there specifically for women entrepreneurs. We’ve gathered necessary and useful information to help you succeed both professionally and personally:
If you’re a woman looking for some guidance in entrepreneurship, check out this great new series Women in Business created by the women of our partner Startup Savant.
What are some insider tips for jump starting a stock brokerage firm?
Focus on a niche market and outcompete your competition by offering value-added services. It’s not enough anymore to advertise your investment services. Clients today expect full-service financial planning.
How and when to build a team
Building a team is never necessary, beyond your core admin team, but may be done when you outgrow your ability to service existing clients. A typical mid-sized brokerage firm will employ at least a dozen investment advisors. Even a small brokerage will need, at minimum, a compliance officer and possibly several principals with experience running a broker-dealer firm, and support staff to process paperwork and make appointments.
- Schwab Franchise Opportunity
- Financial Industry Regulatory Authority
- National Association of Stockbrokers